Franc Rottiers is one of the central figures in this political interest. Combining an expertise in philosophy and anthropology, his PhD purports to examine the topic of complexity in the context of people seeking refugee who, in the process of claiming protection, probe their new environment as potential, “genuine” citizens. The democratic logic they are expected to know and obey is, however, a perspective that they can in no way criticize as long as they not genuinely form part of it. This leads Franc Rottiers to critically assess the “participation logic” and to plead for a new, complex, perspective in this regard. Sources of inspiration here are Bakhtin (answerability), Adorno (critique on the instrumental reason, non-identity principle and negative dialectics), Rancière and Badiou (their analysis of “le/la politique” and articulations of subjectification).