Mario Caimi on Two problems of the Critique of Pure Reason: Deduction and Schematism

Doctoral school course at Ghent University (website)

Grote vergaderzaal (3rd floor), Blandijnberg 2, Ghent

Prof Dr Mario Caimi (Argentina, 1947) is since 1985 professor at the Department of Philosophy of the University of Buenos Aires, Argentina. He has obtained a PhD degree at the Johannes Gutenberg University of Mainz (Germany) with a book on Kant’s concept of sensation. He has been invited professor at many European and Latin American universities, among them at Paris I (Sorbonne), at Eichstätt, Santiago de Compostela, Rio Grande do Sul and others. In 2010 he received the Kant Prize from the International Kant Society. He is member of the editorial staff of the reviews Kant-Studien (Berlin), Studi Kantiani (Pisa), Studia Kantiana (Rio de Janeiro) and others. He has published many papers and books on the philosophy of Kant and has translated most of Kant’s main theoretical works, such as Kritik der reinen Vernunft, Prolegomena, Fortschritte der Metaphysik, Streitschrift gegen Eberhard, Anthropologie and many others. His book on the Transcendental Deduction of 1787: Leçons sur Kant will presently be published in English.


Chapter 1. Introduction. General questions. The aim of the Critique of Pure Reason
  1. Foundation of scientific knowledge
  2. Critique of dogmatic metaphysics
  3. Writing of a foundational text


Chapter 2. The structure of the text of Critique of Pure Reason: The method of isolation and synthesis
  1. The discovering of sensibility
  2. The ‘Transcendental doctrine of Elements’
  3. The separation of sensibility and understanding
  4. Synthesis and its consequences: Transcendental Deduction and Schematism


  • Kant: Von dem ersten Grunde des Unterschiedes der Gegenden im Raume (1768), AA II, 376 ss
  • Kant: Anthropology from a pragmatic point of view, paragraphs 7-11, AA VII, 140-146
  • Kant: Critique of Pure Reason, A 22, B 36; A 62, B 87; A 305, B 362. (Method of isolation)
  • Kant: De mundi sensibilis atque intelligibilis forma et principiis, paragraph 6 AA II 394 (usus realis intellectus)
Chapter 3. The transcendental Deduction
  1. The task of the Deduction: The synthesis of a priori concepts with objects
  2. The argumentative structure of the Deduction
  3. The Principle of Apperception
  4. Imagination in the Transcendental Deduction


  • Kant: Critique of Pure Reason, 1787, paragraphs 13, 15-20 und 22-23
Chapter 4. Schematism (general part)
  1. The function of Schematism. Difference between Schematism and Deduction
  2. The object which must be subsumed under the categories
  3. Categories and time
  4. Some basic concepts: homogeneity, subsumtion, image, imagination


  • Kant: Critique of Pure Reason, B 169 – B 179.
Chapter 5. Schematism (special part I). Empirical concepts
  1. Schemes of empirical concepts
  2. Semantics as a function of the schemata of empirical concepts


  • Kant: Critique of Pure Reason, B 180 – B 181
Chapter 6. Schematism (special part II). Pure concepts
  1. Schemes of quantity and of quality
  2. Schemes of relation: substance, causality, community
  3. Schemes of modality: possibility, existence, necessity


  • Kant: Critique of Pure Reason, B 181 – B 187
Chapter 7. Conclusions and evaluation
  1. Expositions of the participants


Optional Readings:

  • Philonenko, Alexis: “Lecture du schématisme transcendantal” in: Joachim Kopper and Wolfgang Marx (editors): Zweihundert Jahre Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Hildesheim, 1981, 291-312
  • Detel, Wolfgang: “Zur Funktion des Schematismuskapitels in Kants Kritik der reinen Vernunft” in: Kant-Studien 69, 1978, pp.17-45
  • Düsing, Klaus: “Schema und Einbildungskraft in Kants ‘Kritik der reinen Vernunft'” in: Lothar Kreimendahl (editor): Aufklärung und Skepsis. Studien zur Philosophie und Geistesgeschichte des 17. und 18. Jahrhunderts. Köln, 1995, pp. 47-71
  • Curtius, Ernst Robert: “Das Schematismuskapitel in der Kritik der reinen Vernunft. Philologische Untersuchung” in: Kant-Studien 1914, pp.338-366
  • Pippin, Robert B.: “The Schematism and Empirical Concepts”, in Kant-Studien 67, 1976, pp.156-171
  • Rollmann, Veit-Justus und Hahmann, Andree: “Weltstoff und absolute Beharrlichkeit: Die Erste Analogie der Erfahrung und der Entwurf Übergang 1-14 des Opus postumum” in: Kant-Studien 102, 2011, pp.168-190
  • Hahmann, André: Kritische Metaphysik der Substanz. Kant im Widerspruch zu Leibniz. Berlin, New York, Walter de Gruyter, 2009
  • Giuseppe Motta: Die Postulate des empirischen Denkens überhaupt. Berlin, De Gruyter, 2012.

Reading Material

For the copyrighted texts, please contact emiliano.acosta@ugent.be

Programme schedule

30 September 2013 9:00-11:0011:00-12:00 Chapter 1 & 2, and table of contentsParticipants explain their subject of research in relation to the Kantian philosophy
1 October 2013 9:00-12:00 Chapter 3
2 October 2013 9:00-12:00 Chapter 4 & 5
3 October 2013 9:00-12:00 Chapter 6 (1-2)
4 October 2013 9:00-12:00 Chapter 6 (3) and discussion of the main difficulties of the doctrin of Schematism
from 30 September 2013 to 4 October 2013


Grote Vergaderzaal (3rd floor)
Blandijnberg 2


Emiliano Acosta